Review of FSP grant applications is performed in two stages: Applicants must first submit a letter of intent, including abstract, specific aim(s), and backgrounds, together with some preliminary results, experimental methods, and 3-5 most important publications of the past five years (not to exceed 5 pages), with a deadline around October. After review of the letters of intent, invitations are issued from late November to early December to applicants selected to submit full applications. Full applications are then due from the beginning to middle of January. Each proposal will be sent to three overseas and two domestic reviewers. Each primary reviewer will assign a score ranging from 1 (highly recommended) to 5 (not recommended) to each proposal. Final decisions will be discussed by a panel of secondary reviewers based on the scores received by each applicant.